Robotic nephroureterectomy is a surgical treatment in which the surgeon removes the patient’s kidney and ureter (the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder). It is performed primarily to treat transitional cell carcinoma—a cancerous growth in the lining of the urinary tract, that can occur in the kidney, ureter or bladder—in patients were the tumor is confined to the upper ureter and/or kidney with no evidence of metastasis. In the past, nephroureterectomy was traditionally done as an open procedure, requiring a large incision extending from the patient’s flank to his or her pelvis. With robot-assisted surgery, this same procedure may be performed in a minimally invasive fashion using a series of small incisions, thereby reducing trauma on the patient’s body and leading to faster healing and recovery.